Zen Research

(Rhodiola Ext Sal 1% HPLC)

  1. Amsterdam, Jay D, and Alexander G Panossian. “Rhodiola rosea L. as a putative botanical antidepressant.” Phytomedicine : International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology Vol. 23,7 (2016): 770-83. doi:10.1016/j.phymed.2016.02.009

  1. Nabavi, Seyed Fazel et al. “Rhodiola rosea L. and Alzheimer's Disease: From Farm to Pharmacy.” Phytotherapy Research : PTR vol. 30,4 (2016): 532-9. doi:10.1002/ptr.5569

  1. Concerto, Carmen et al. “Exploring the effect of adaptogenic Rhodiola Rosea extract on neuroplasticity in humans.” Complementary Therapies in Medicine Vol. 41 (2018): 141-146. doi:10.1016/j.ctim.2018.09.013

  1. Gao, Lili et al. “Antidepressants effects of Rhodiola capsule combined with sertraline for major depressive disorder: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial.” Journal of Affective Disorders Vol. 265 (2020): 99-103. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2020.01.065

  1. Panossian, A et al. “Rosenroot (Rhodiola rosea): traditional use, chemical composition, pharmacology and clinical efficacy.” Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology Vol. 17,7 (2010): 481-93. doi:10.1016/j.phymed.2010.02.002



Ashwagandha

  1. Pratte, Morgan A et al. “An alternative treatment for anxiety: a systematic review of human trial results reported for the Ayurvedic herb ashwagandha (Withania somnifera).” Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (New York, N.Y.) Vol. 20,12 (2014): 901-8. doi:10.1089/acm.2014.0177
  2. Chandrasekhar, K et al. “A prospective, randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study of safety and efficacy of a high-concentration full-spectrum extract of ashwagandha root in reducing stress and anxiety in adults.” Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine Vol. 34,3 (2012): 255-62. doi:10.4103/0253-7176.106022



  1. Choudhary, Dnyanraj et al. “Body Weight Management in Adults Under Chronic Stress Through Treatment With Ashwagandha Root Extract: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial.” Journal of Evidence-based Complementary & Alternative Medicine Vol. 22,1 (2017): 96-106. doi:10.1177/2156587216641830

  1. Sarris, Jerome et al. “Plant-based medicines for anxiety disorders, part 2: a review of clinical studies with supporting preclinical evidence.” CNS Drugs Vol. 27,4 (2013): 301-19. doi:10.1007/s40263-013-0059-9

  1. Langade, Deepak et al. “Efficacy and Safety of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) Root Extract in Insomnia and Anxiety: A Double-blind, Randomized, Placebo-controlled Study.” Cureus Vol. 11,9 e5797. 28 Sep. 2019, doi:10.7759/cureus.5797



Lutein 5% 

  1. Eisenhauer, Bronwyn et al. “Lutein and Zeaxanthin-Food Sources, Bioavailability  and Dietary Variety in Age-Related Macular  Degeneration Protection.” Nutrients Vol. 9,2 120. 9 Feb. 2017, doi:10.3390/nu9020120

  1. Johnson, Elizabeth J. “Role of lutein and zeaxanthin in visual and cognitive function throughout the lifespan.” Nutrition Reviews Vol. 72,9 (2014): 605-12. doi:10.1111/nure.12133

  1. Jia, Yu-Ping et al. “The Pharmacological Effects of Lutein and Zeaxanthin on Visual Disorders and Cognition Diseases.” Molecules (Basel, Switzerland) Vol. 22,4 610. 20 Apr. 2017, doi:10.3390/molecules22040610

  1. Kijlstra, Aize et al. “Lutein: more than just a filter for blue light.” Progress in Retinal and Eye Research Vol. 31,4 (2012): 303-15. doi:10.1016/j.preteyeres.2012.03.002

  1. Long, Amy C et al. “Lutein as an Ingredient in Pediatric Nutritionals.” Journal of AOAC International Vol. 102,4 (2019): 1034-1043. doi:10.5740/jaoacint.19-0014



Chamomile 

  1. Keefe, John R et al. “Short-term open-label chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) therapy of moderate to severe generalized anxiety disorder.” Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology Vol. 23,14 (2016): 1699-1705. doi:10.1016/j.phymed.2016.10.013

  1. Adib-Hajbaghery, Mohsen, and Seyedeh Nesa Mousavi. “The effects of chamomile extract on sleep quality among elderly people: A clinical trial.” Complementary therapies in medicine Vol. 35 (2017): 109-114. doi:10.1016/j.ctim.2017.09.010

  1. Chang, Shao-Min, and Chung-Hey Chen. “Effects of an intervention with drinking chamomile tea on sleep quality and depression in sleep disturbed postnatal women: a randomized controlled trial.” Journal of advanced nursing Vol. 72,2 (2016): 306-15. doi:10.1111/jan.12836

  1. McKay, Diane L, and Jeffrey B Blumberg. “A review of the bioactivity and potential health benefits of chamomile tea (Matricaria recutita L.).” Phytotherapy Research : PTR Vol. 20,7 (2006): 519-30. doi:10.1002/ptr.1900

  1. Salehi, Bahare et al. “Plant-Derived Bioactives in Oral Mucosal Lesions: A Key Emphasis to Curcumin, Lycopene, Chamomile, Aloe vera, Green Tea and Coffee Properties.” Biomolecules Vol. 9,3 106. 17 Mar. 2019, doi:10.3390/biom9030106



GABA

  1. Savage, Karen et al. “GABA-modulating phytomedicines for anxiety: A systematic review of preclinical and clinical evidence.” Phytotherapy research: PTR Vol. 32,1 (2018): 3-18. doi:10.1002/ptr.5940

  1. Petroff, Ognen A C. “GABA and glutamate in the human brain.” The Neuroscientist : a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry Vol. 8,6 (2002): 562-73. doi:10.1177/1073858402238515

  1. LaMantia, A S. “The usual suspects: GABA and glutamate may regulate proliferation in the neocortex.” Neuron Vol. 15,6 (1995): 1223-5. doi:10.1016/0896-6273(95)90002-0

  1. Gottesmann, Claude. “GABA mechanisms and sleep.” Neuroscience Vol. 111,2 (2002): 231-9. doi:10.1016/s0306-4522(02)00034-9

  1. Kim, Suhyeon et al. “GABA and l-theanine mixture decreases sleep latency and improves NREM sleep.” Pharmaceutical Biology Vol. 57,1 (2019): 65-73. doi:10.1080/13880209.2018.1557698

Lemon Balm

 

  1. Anti-diabetic effects of lemon balm ( Melissa officinalis) essential oil on glucose- and lipid-regulating enzymes in type 2 diabetic mice. Br.J.Nutr. 2010;104:180-188. 

  1. Kennedy DO, Scholey AB, Tildesley NT, et al. Modulation of mood and cognitive performance following acute administration of Melissa officinalis (lemon balm). Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2002;72:953-64.

  1. Kennedy DO, Wake G, Savelev S, et al. Modulation of mood and cognitive performance following acute administration of single doses of Melissa officinalis (Lemon balm) with human CNS nicotinic and muscarinic receptor-binding properties. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2003 Oct;28:1871-81. 

  1. Cohen RA, Kucera LS, and Herrmann EC. Antiviral activity of Melissa officinalis (lemon balm) extract (29600). Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 1964;117:431-434.

  1. Kucera, L. S., Cohen, R. A., and Herrmann, E. C., Jr. Antiviral activities of extracts of the lemon balm plant. Ann N.Y.Acad Sci 7-30-1965;130(1):474-482. 



Skullcap

  1. Awad, R., Arnason, J. T., Trudeau, V., Bergeron, C., Budzinski, J. W., Foster, B. C., and Merali, Z. Phytochemical and biological analysis of skullcap (Scutellaria lateriflora L.): a medicinal plant with anxiolytic properties. Phytomedicine. 2003;10(8):640-649. 

  1. Li, J., Ding, Y., Li, X. C., Ferreira, D., Khan, S., Smillie, T., and Khan, I. A. Scuteflorins A and B, dihydropyrano coumarins from Scutellaria lateriflora. J Nat.Prod. 2009;72(6):983-987.

  1. Sarris, J., Panossian, A., Schweitzer, I., Stough, C., and Scholey, A. Herbal medicine for depression, anxiety and insomnia: a review of psychopharmacology and clinical evidence. Eur.Neuropsychopharmacol. 2011;21(12):841-860. 

  1. Brock C, Whitehouse J, Tewfik I, Towell T. American skullcap (Scutellaria lateriflora): a randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study of its effects on mood in healthy volunteers. Phytother Res 2014;28(5):692-8.

  1. Wolfson P, Hoffmann DL. An investigation into the efficacy of Scutellaria lateriflora in healthy volunteers. Altern Ther Health Med 2003;9:74-8. 



Hawthorn

  1. Von Eiff M, Brunner H, Haegeli A, et al. Hawthorn / passion flower extract and improvement in physical exercise capacity of patients with dyspnoea Class II of the NYHA functional classifications. Acta Therapeutica 1994;20:47-66.

  1. Boedigheimer K and Chase D. [Effectiveness of hawthorn extract at a dosage of 3x100mg per day]. Munch Med Wschr 1994;136 Suppl 1:s7-s11.

  1. Islam, J., Uretsky, B. F., and Sierpina, V. S. Heart failure improvement with CoQ10, Hawthorn, and magnesium in a patient scheduled for cardiac resynchronization-defibrillator therapy: a case study. Explore.(NY) 2006;2(4):339-341. 

  1. Von Eiff M, Brunner H, Haegeli A, and et al. Hawthorn/passion flower extract and improvement in physical exercise capacity of patients with dyspnoea class II of the NYHA functional classification. Acta Therapeutica 1994;20:47-66.

  1. Asher GN, Viera AJ, Weaver MA, et al. Effect of hawthorn standardized extract on flow mediated dilation in prehypertensive and mildly hypertensive adults: a randomized, controlled crossover trial. BMC.Complement Altern.Med 2012;12:26. 





Bacopa (Brahmi) 

  1. Sharma, R, Chaturvedi, C, and Tewari, PV. Efficacy of Bacopa monniera in revitalizing intellectual functions in children. J Res Edu Ind Med 1987;1-12.

  1. Singh, R. H. and Singh, L. Studies on the Anti-Anxiety Effect of the Medhya Rasayana Drug, Brahmi (Bacopa monniera Wettst.) - Part I. Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Siddha 1980;1(1):133-148.

  1. Downey LA, Kean J, Nemeh F, et al. An acute, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study of 320?mg and 640?mg doses of a special extract of Bacopa monnieri (CDRI 08) on sustained cognitive performance. Phytother Res 2013;27(9):1407-13. 

  1. Stough C, Singh H, Zangara A. Mechanisms, efficacy, and safety of Bacopa monnieri (bacopa) for cognitive and brain enhancement. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2015;2015:717605. 

  1. Singh M, Murthy V, Ramassamy C. Modulation of hydrogen peroxide and acrolein-induced oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunctions and redox regulated pathways by the Bacopa monnieri extract: potential implication in Alzheimer's disease. J Alzheimers Dis 2010;21:229-47. 



Magnolia 

  1. Kalman, D. S., Feldman, S., Feldman, R., Schwartz, H. I., Krieger, D. R., and Garrison, R. Effect of a proprietary Magnolia and Phellodendron extract on stress levels in healthy women: a pilot, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Nutr J 2008;7:11. 

  1. De Franciscis P, Grauso F, Luisi A, Schettino MT, Torella M, Colacurci N. Adding Agnus Castus and Magnolia to Soy Isoflavones Relieves Sleep Disturbances Besides Postmenopausal Vasomotor Symptoms-Long Term Safety and Effectiveness. Nutrients. 2017;9(2):129. 

  1. Talbott SM, Talbott JA, Pugh M. Effect of Magnolia officinalis and Phellodendron amurense (Relora®) on cortisol and psychological mood state in moderately stressed subjects. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2013;10(1):37.

  1. Kuribara H, Kishi E, Maruyama Y. Does dihydro-honokiol, a potent anxiolytic compound, result in the development of benzodiazepine-like side effects? J Pharm Pharmacol 2000;52:1017-22.

  1. Kuribara H, Kishi E, Hattori N, et al. The anxiolytic effect of two oriental herbal drugs in Japan is attributed to honokiol from magnolia bark. J Pharm Pharmacol 2000;52:1425-9.



Passion flower 

  1. Gibbert, Judith et al. “Improvement of Stress Resistance and Quality of Life of Adults With Nervous Restlessness After Treatment With a Passion Flower Dry Extract” Complementary medicine research Vol. 24,2 (2017): 83-89. doi:10.1159/000464342

  1. Lakhan, Shaheen E, and Karen F Vieira. “Nutritional and herbal supplements for anxiety and anxiety-related disorders: systematic review.” Nutrition journal Vol. 9 42. 7 Oct. 2010, doi:10.1186/1475-2891-9-42

  1. Nojoumi, Mandana et al. “Effects of Passion Flower Extract, as an Add-On Treatment to Sertraline, on Reaction Time in Patients ‎with Generalized Anxiety Disorder: A Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Study.” Iranian journal of psychiatry Vol. 11,3 (2016): 191-197.

  1. Grundmann O, Wang J, McGregor GP, Butterweck V. Anxiolytic activity of a phytochemically characterized Passiflora incarnata extract is mediated via the GABAergic system. Planta Medica 2008;74:1769-73. 

  1. Dhawan K, Kumar S, Sharma A. Anxiolytic activity of aerial and underground parts of Passiflora incarnata. Fitoterapia 2001;72:922-6.. 



Valerian 

  1. Mineo, Ludovico et al. “Valeriana officinalis Root Extract Modulates Cortical Excitatory Circuits in Humans.” Neuropsychobiology Vol. 75,1 (2017): 46-51. doi:10.1159/000480053

  1. Bent, Stephen et al. “Valerian for sleep: a systematic review and meta-analysis.” The American journal of medicine Vol. 119,12 (2006): 1005-12. doi:10.1016/j.amjmed.2006.02.026

  1. Ross, Stephanie Maxine. “Valerian Root and Lemon Balm Extracts: A Phytomedicine Compound Improves Symptoms of Hyperactivity, Attention Deficits, and Impulsivity in Children.” Holistic nursing practice Vol. 29,6 (2015): 391-5. doi:10.1097/HNP.0000000000000118

  1. Behboodi Moghadam, Zahra et al. “The effect of Valerian root extract on the severity of premenstrual syndrome symptoms.” Journal of traditional and complementary medicine Vol. 6,3 309-15. 19 Jan. 2016, doi:10.1016/j.jtcme.2015.09.001

  1. Donath, F et al. “Critical evaluation of the effect of valerian extract on sleep structure and sleep quality.” Pharmacopsychiatry Vol. 33,2 (2000): 47-53. doi:10.1055/s-2000-7972




L-Theanine 

  1. Gomez-Ramirez M, et al (2007). “The deployment of intersensory selective attention: a high-density electrical mapping study of the effects of theanine.” Clin Neuropharmacol, 30(1):25-38. doi: 10.1097/01.WNF.0000240940.13876.17

  1. Rao TP1, et al (2015). “In Search of a Safe Natural Sleep Aid.” J Am Coll Nutr, 34(5):436-47. doi: 10.1080/07315724.2014.926153

  1. Yokogoshi H, et al (1998). “Effect of theanine, r-glutamylethylamide, on brain monoamines and striatal dopamine release in conscious rats.” Neurochem Res, 23(5):667-73. doi: 10.1023/A:1022490806093

  1. Sumathi T, et al (2016). “L-Theanine alleviates the neuropathological changes induced by PCB (Aroclor 1254) via inhibiting upregulation of inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress in the rat brain.” Environ Toxicol Pharmacol, 42:99-117. doi: 10.1016/j.etap.2016.01.008

  1. Takeda A, et al (2011). “Facilitated neurogenesis in the developing hippocampus after intake of theanine, an amino acid in tea leaves, and object recognition memory.” Cell Mol Neurobiol, 31(7):1079-88. doi: 10.1007/s10571-011-9707-0



Oat Straw (Avena Sativa) 20:1 

  1. Wong, Rachel H X et al. “Chronic consumption of a wild green oat extract (Neuravena) improves brachial flow-mediated dilatation and cerebrovascular responsiveness in older adults.” Journal of hypertension Vol. 31,1 (2013): 192-200. doi:10.1097/HJH.0b013e32835b04d4

  1. Napoli, Claudio, and Louis J Ignarro. “Nitric oxide and pathogenic mechanisms involved in the development of vascular diseases.” Archives of pharmacal research Vol. 32,8 (2009): 1103-8. doi:10.1007/s12272-009-1801-1

  1. Kennedy, David O et al. “Acute effects of a wild green-oat (Avena sativa) extract on cognitive function in middle-aged adults: A double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subjects trial.” Nutritional neuroscience Vol. 20,2 (2017): 135-151. doi:10.1080/1028415X.2015.1101304

  1. Deak, Terrence et al. “A multispecies approach for understanding neuroimmune mechanisms of stress.” Dialogues in clinical neuroscience Vol. 19,1 (2017): 37-53.

  1. Perrelli, Andrea et al. “Biological Activities, Health Benefits, and Therapeutic Properties of Avenanthramides: From Skin Protection to Prevention and Treatment of Cerebrovascular Diseases.” Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity Vol. 2018 6015351. 23 Aug. 2018, doi:10.1155/2018/6015351








Mucuna Pruriens 14% HPLC 

  1. Johnson, Shelby L et al. “Levodopa-Reduced Mucuna pruriens Seed Extract Shows Neuroprotective Effects against Parkinson's Disease in Murine Microglia and Human Neuroblastoma Cells, Caenorhabditis elegans, and Drosophila melanogaster.” Nutrients Vol. 10,9 1139. 22 Aug. 2018, doi:10.3390/nu10091139

  1. Cilia, Roberto et al. “Mucuna pruriens in Parkinson disease: A double-blind, randomized, controlled, crossover study.” Neurology Vol. 89,5 (2017): 432-438. doi:10.1212/WNL.0000000000004175

  1. Cilia, Roberto et al. “Daily intake of Mucuna pruriens in advanced Parkinson's disease: A 16-week, noninferiority, randomized, crossover, pilot study.” Parkinsonism & related disorders Vol. 49 (2018): 60-66. doi:10.1016/j.parkreldis.2018.01.014

  1. Lampariello, Lucia Raffaella et al. “The Magic Velvet Bean of Mucuna pruriens.” Journal of traditional and complementary medicine Vol. 2,4 (2012): 331-9. doi:10.1016/s2225-4110(16)30119-5

  1. Amin K.M.Y, Khan M.N, Zillur-Rehman S, Khan N.A. Sexual function improving effect of Mucuna pruriens in sexually normal male rats. Fitoterapia Milano. 1996;67:53–56.



St John's Wort 

  1. Barnes, J et al. “St John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.): a review of its chemistry, pharmacology and clinical properties.” The Journal of pharmacy and pharmacology Vol. 53,5 (2001): 583-600. doi:10.1211/0022357011775910

  1. Assiri, Khalil et al. “Hypericum perforatum (St. John's Wort) as a possible therapeutic alternative for the management of trigeminal neuralgia (TN) - A case report.” Complementary therapies in medicine Vol. 30 (2017): 36-39. doi:10.1016/j.ctim.2016.10.014

  1. Gaster, B, and J Holroyd. “St John's wort for depression: a systematic review.” Archives of internal medicine Vol. 160,2 (2000): 152-6. doi:10.1001/archinte.160.2.152

  1. Di Pierro, Francesco et al. “Role in depression of a multi-fractionated versus a conventional Hypericum perforatum extract.” Panminerva medica Vol. 60,4 (2018): 156-160. doi:10.23736/S0031-0808.18.03518-8

  1. Canning, Sarah et al. “The efficacy of Hypericum perforatum (St John's wort) for the treatment of premenstrual syndrome: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.” CNS drugs Vol. 24,3 (2010): 207-25. doi:10.2165/11530120-000000000-00000

Hops 

  1. Salter, Shanah, and Sonya Brownie. “Treating primary insomnia - the efficacy of valerian and hops.” Australian family physician Vol. 39,6 (2010): 433-7.

  1. Bartmańska, Agnieszka et al. “Antimicrobial Properties of Spent Hops Extracts, Flavonoids Isolated Therefrom, and Their Derivatives.” Molecules (Basel, Switzerland) Vol. 23,8 2059. 17 Aug. 2018, doi:10.3390/molecules23082059

  1. Nuutinen, Tarmo. “Medicinal properties of terpenes found in Cannabis sativa and Humulus lupulus.” European journal of medicinal chemistry Vol. 157 (2018): 198-228. doi:10.1016/j.ejmech.2018.07.076

  1. Nuutinen, Tarmo. “Medicinal properties of terpenes found in Cannabis sativa and Humulus lupulus.” European journal of medicinal chemistry Vol. 157 (2018): 198-228. doi:10.1016/j.ejmech.2018.07.076

  1. Di Sotto, Antonella et al. “Antiviral and Antioxidant Activity of a Hydroalcoholic Extract from Humulus lupulus L.” Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity Vol. 2018 5919237. 24 Jul. 2018, doi:10.1155/2018/5919237




Griffonia Seed Ext 5-HTP)

  1. Kahn RS, Westenberg HG. L-5-hydroxytryptophan in the treatment of anxiety disorders. J Affect Disord 1985;8:197-200. 

  1. Meyer JS, Welch KM, Deshmukh VD, et al. Neurotransmitter precursor amino acids in the treatment of multi-infarct dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Journal of American Geriatric Society 1977;25:289-98.

  1. Carnevale, G et al. “Anxiolytic-like effect of Griffonia simplicifolia Baill. seed extract in rats.” Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology Vol. 18,10 (2011): 848-51. doi:10.1016/j.phymed.2011.01.016

  1. Birdsall, T C. “5-Hydroxytryptophan: a clinically-effective serotonin precursor.” Alternative medicine review : a journal of clinical therapeutic Vol. 3,4 (1998): 271-80.

  1. Jacobsen, Jacob P R et al. “Adjunctive 5-Hydroxytryptophan Slow-Release for Treatment-Resistant Depression: Clinical and Preclinical Rationale.” Trends in pharmacological sciences Vol. 37,11 (2016): 933-944. doi:10.1016/j.tips.2016.09.001



Vitamins/Minerals: (no references needed for vitamins)

B Vitamins:

B1 (12mg)

B2 (12mg

B5 (16mg)

B6 (8mg)

Niacin (28mg)

Biotin (300mg)

Calcium Carbonate (25mg)

Magnesium Oxide (25mg)

Zinc Oxide (25mg)

Potassium Gluconate (25mg)